## Finite Element Methods in Civil Engineering-COURSEWORK

The main aims of the computer modelling coursework are twofold; firstly, by completing the

challenge you will increase your understanding of the underlying structural analysis theory.

Secondly, you will gain experience in using a commercially available software such as ETABS

and ABAQUS. When devising your coursework plan, you need to account for:

Research on the topic

Development of analytical calculations where needed

Applications of numerical methods using the software

Validation of the results

Appropriate communication of the results

Part 1 (20%)

The horizontal steel S355, IPE400 beam in Figure 1 is subjected to a concentrated bending

moment, 𝑀, and vertical force, 𝑃, as shown in the figure. The gravitational forces should be

neglected. The values of 𝐿𝑏, 𝑀, 𝑃 are different for each student and they are provided in Table

1 at the end of the brief.

Figure 1. Horizontal steel S355, IPE400 beam.

a) Use ETABS to determine the displacements and rotations, 𝑣, 𝜃, at nodes 2, 3 and 4 of

the beam.

b) Use ETABS to determine the shear forces and bending moments at nodes 2, 3 and 4 of

the beam. Draw the shear force and bending moment diagrams respectively.

c) Compare the results from a) and b) with hand calculations using the direct stiffness

method.

Dr Georgios Kampas

2

Part 2 (30%)

The steel plate in Figure 2 is subjected to a concentrated load, 𝑃𝑝, as shown in the figure. Nodes

1,3 and 4 have pin supports while at node 2 there is a roller. The gravitational forces should be

neglected.

Figure 2. Layout of the steel plate.

a) Use ABAQUS to determine the displacement, 𝑣2 , at node 2.

b) Use ABAQUS to determine the stresses, 𝜎𝑥, 𝜎𝑦, 𝜏𝑥𝑦 at the midpoint of the plate (𝑥

marker on Fig. 2).

c) Compare the results from a) and b) with hand calculations using the direct stiffness

method.

Dr Georgios Kampas

3

Part 3 (40%)

The 4-storey residential steel building shown in Figure 3 consists of 3 bays in the x-direction

and 2 bays in the y-direction. Assume that each floor has a reinforced concrete slab 25cm deep.

All beams are S355 IPE300 and the columns HE400B. Consider all connections between

beams and columns as pinned connections. All masses should be distributed at the nodes of the

structure based on both dead and live load. The building is subjected to the N-S component of

the 95 Erzincan record of the 1992 Erzincan earthquake along the x-direction and to the E-W

component of the 95 Erzincan record along the y-direction shown in Figure 4. Both records are

attached as excel files.

Figure 3. Left: Plan view and Right: Elevation of a 4-storey steel building subjected to the 95

Erzincan records of the 1992 Erzincan earthquake (Fig. 4).

Dr Georgios Kampas

4

Figure 4. 95 Erzincan records from the 1992 Erzincan earthquake.

a) Consider fixities at the foundation supports and determine i) the maximum interstorey

drifts, ii) the maximum base shears and iii) the maximum bending moments on beams

and columns for both horizontal directions.

b) Consider pinned supports at the foundations and determine i) the maximum interstorey

drifts, ii) the maximum base shears and iii) the maximum bending moments on beams

and columns for both horizontal directions. What would you change in this case?

c) Find an efficient method by using braces to minimise the interstorey drifts, base shears

and bending moments for case b) (pinned supports). Justify your selection of sections

and locations of the braces. Show the comparisons with cases a) and b) and the

maximum internal forces developed in the braces.